Affiliation:Solar CITIES e.V. Essen, Germany
Patel College of Global Sustainability, USF Tampa, Florida, USA
Abstract: "In theory there are many ways to provide energy and waste management in a sustainable fashion, but quite often the technical solutions are hard to implement on the ground in any practical sense. Theories of urban planning emphasize 9 different and logically discrete, if often overlapping, ways to get the job done:
Each has its situational merits, but as Friedrich Hayek famously pointed out in "The Road to Serfdom" (1944), all planning that is done "for" somebody else has the potential to turn toward "tyranny" and internal politics often stymie well intentioned efforts at implementation (Pressman and Wildavsky, 1984).
To correct for this, many well educated people with a philanthropic bent have hoped to be "advocates" for poor and marginalized populations, rushing in with grants and microenterprise schemes to provide solar and wind and biomass energy options and ways to dispose of wastes and treat waste water. The problem with many of these schemes is that they also exclude the skill development of those in need and when funding dries up, many of the gains are lost as equipment decays or falls into disuse.. There are, however, other planning approaches designed to avoid depriving the individual stakeholder of his or her right to full integration in any attempt to provide for their environmental wellbeing. The one most touted but often least implemented, particularly in energy and waste treatment, is "participatory planning". When the Cooper Hewitt Design museum launched its landmark travelling exhibit and book "Design for the Other 90%" it quickly came under fire as an illustration of advocacy planning that inevitably alienated the very people it was intended to serve so the next iteration rightfully changed the rhetoric and the new exhibit and book was titled instead "Design WITH the other 90%". This approach recognized that there is inherent genius within each stakeholder community and this acumen for problem solving should be involved from the beginning.
Our NGO, Solar CITIES, began with a mission to "connect community catalysts integrating technologies for industrial ecology solutions". We are explicitly an urban participatory planning and empowerment network that takes something all communities have in common -- food and toilet wastes -- and shares ideas and techniques and innovations for how to turn them from liabilities into assets. Our core technologies are small scale biodigester systems and aeroponic food production systems that close the loop between food consumption and food production and that can be built by anyone anywhere using local and low cost materials. Everything we do is open source and subject to endless revision by community stakeholders.
In this keynote presentation we share the overwhelming success we have had around the world (without ignoring the lessons from occasional failures) "innovating" anaerobic digester systems built from used water tanks with communities as different as the garbage pickers of Cairo Egypt and Menonite and Amish families in suburban Pennsylvania.
We show how today's social media is being used to create a grass roots movement for capturing and transforming the high energy and fertility values found in materials other people consider "garbage", and doing so at the household and community level, by adopting an ethic we were taught by local trash recyclers around the world: that there is no such thing as waste, that nothing and nobody should be wasted, and that everybody has an important role they can play in problem solving and infrastructure development once they are invited into the "great conversation" and empowered to co-create their own closed-cycle urban ecology systems."
Affiliation: University of Technology Belfort Montbliard (UTBM), Rue Thierry Mieg, Belfort Cedex
Abstract: Electric Vehicles (EV) use electric motors instead of Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs) for propulsion. At the contrary of the ICEs, the electric engines are reversible and allow recovering energy generated from braking when it is coupled to an electric storage device. This advantage makes the EV suitable for urban use where lots of braking phases occur. Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) are becoming more attractive with the advancement of new battery technology that has higher power and energy density and allowing matching the requested vehicle dynamic. The autonomy is still a serious issue for BEVs. Fuel Cell (FC) vehicles bring a real solution to the requested autonomy but economic, technological and societal constrains have to be addressed before the large use of EV. Hybrid electrical vehicle of FC, battery and supercapacitor combine the advantages of each source and storage devices. This presentation deals with the electric vehicles technologies, topologies, modelling, control and energy management of this hybrid sources.
Affiliation: Research professor, Daegu Univeristy
Country: South korea
Abstract: Dwindling fossil fuel resources and the ever increasing energy demands due to the sustained growth of industrial sectors have forced the energy scientists towards the prospecting of renewable energy resources, that are green, clean and pollution free. Biofuel production from various cellulose biomass has been practiced for long time, however, owing to the expensive pretreatment techniques, concluded as not sustainable. In this spotlight, liquid biofuel production from micro and macro algae biomass are highly promising, because of their bio- refinery products (mainly chemicals and value added products, etc), additionally, these feedstocks are attained at low cost and also bearing enormous amount of bio-moieties ranging from carbohydrate, protein and lipid, that could be converted to various chemicals such as volatile fatty acids and pigments. Further, conversion of left over residues for the biofuel production could create a sustainable and economical industrial sector.
In this talk, I would cover the trends of biofuel production from various micro and macro algae biomass that includes the production of biodiesel, ethanol, hydrogen and methane. Besides, sustainable scheme of bio-refinery concept for the production of biochemicals and the residual conversion would be highlighted for the sustainable future.
Keywords: Algae biomass, carbohydrate, biocehemicals, bioenergy, biofuel production technolgies.
Affiliation:Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Abstract: Hydrogen fermentation of conventional waste, such as food waste and high-strength wastewater, is an environmentally friendly treatment with the additional benefit of hydrogen production. However, the amount of hydrogen production using the leftover biomass is not sufficient for a H2-based economy, if we would implement all over the world. The feasibility of hydrogen fermentation as a mainstream technology in the near future depends on the utilization of carbohydrate-rich, economical, and sustainable biomass. In that scenario, prospective biomass for biofuel would be algae and lignocellulose, of which polysaccharide complexes are based on not only glucose, but other isomers such as galactose, which is analogue to hexose glucose, however, bearingdifferent chemical properties. In recent years, utilization of this sugar opened a new window in BioH2fermentation. This presentation summarizes the research achievement in bioH2 production from galactose utilization so far and views its potential impact on biofuel production.
Keywords: hydrogen, galactose, biofuels, biomass.
Affiliation:School of Mechanical Engineering, Sudan University of Science and Technology
Country: Sweden and Sudan
Abstract: There is a strong pressure on commercial airlines firstly to cap and then to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases due to use of petroleum- sourced jet fuel. One key way that they can do this is by beginning to blend fossil jet fuel with jet biofuels produced from one or other biomass feedstocks by one of a growing number of approved technologies. Presently these jet biofuels are able only to be blended at up to 50% of the total volume, though in most of their characteristics they are the same, or some respects even superior, to the petroleum-sourced jet fuel. Two major obstacles are presently impeding the production of biojet fuel. Firstly, depending on feedstock and scale of production, it is presently from 3-4 times up to 10-15 times the cost per unit volume, relative to petroleum jet fuel.
Secondly, the amounts of feedstock needed to produce the target volumes of biojet from 2020 onward are very large. The amounts of feedstock needed produce the amounts forecast to be required by 2050 are 10 to 20 times greater. To produce these far larger volumes of feedstock sustainably and cost-competitively will need some significant new developments in both feedstocks supply and in processing technologies.
Major advances have been made in this whole area since about 2009, including in production and testing of the ASTM-approved biojet fuels, and most recently, in development of at least four other possible production technologies or variants on the initial technologies. This presentation brings together the most relevant current information on production of jet biofuel, and in particular the information on the potential feedstocks and the most likely technologies for production of the increasingly large volumes of jet biofuel required by 2020 and beyond.
Republic of Korea, firstname.lastname@example.org